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Mussel Adhesive Protein (MAP) Functions and Its Application Scenarios

Time:2024-05-15 Hits:48
Mussel Adhesive Protein (MAP) is a byssus protein secreted by the byssal glands of marine mussels. With a molecular weight of approximately 100 kDa, it features lysine and dopa groups in its structure. Lysine, due to its high isoelectric point, carries a positive charge at the physiological pH of the human body, allowing it to attract negatively charged cells like epidermal cells and fibroblasts through electrostatic interactions. This promotes wound healing. The dopa group, on the other hand, readily combines with oxygen in the air, forming a high molecular weight network polymer through oxidative cross-linking. This unique structure enables MAP to adhere firmly to diverse surfaces. The protein finds extensive applications in the medical and cosmetic industries, particularly in skin care and wound healing.
 
 
 
 
Product advantages
 ·High DOPA content
·Protein content higher than 95%
·Purity is as high as 90% or more
·No risk of virus contamination
 
Product
Level
Purity
Packaging
Mussel Adhesive Protein  sterile freeze-dried powder
 
90%
1g/bottle, 5g/bottle
Mussel Adhesive Protein  sterile freeze-dried powder
cosmetic
90%
1g/bottle
Mussel Adhesive Protein
cosmetic
98%
1kg 5kg 25kg
Mussel Adhesive Protein
food grade
98%
1kg 5kg 25kg
 
 
Functions
 
Skin Repair
Mussel Adhesive Protein is highly prized for its remarkable reparative prowess and gentleness, crafting a microscopic to nanoscale protective barrier that physically shields the skin from the harmful impacts of external elements.
 
Accelerated Wound Healing
The positive charge of Mussel Adhesive Protein proficiently draws in cells, fostering their adherence, migration, and growth. This expedited cellular activity contributes to the swiftness of wound healing. Additionally, the micro-scale discontinuous mesh bioscaffold fashioned by Mussel Adhesive Protein bolsters waterproof adhesion, further aiding wound healing.
 
Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Effects
Mussel Adhesive Protein contains numerous dopa groups that boast noteworthy antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. These groups fashion a protective layer on the skin's surface, serving as a physical barricade that mitigates various subjective symptoms and objective indications of sensitive skin.
 
Hydrogel Scaffold
The incorporation of mussel adhesive proteins into hydrogel scaffolds has significantly bolstered cell adhesion, spreading, and colonization, making them highly efficacious in various biomedical applications.
 
 
Biomedicine and Clinical Applications
 Collagen-Targeted Surgical Protein Glue Inspired by Nature's Healing Process
The Collagen-Targeted Gel is a groundbreaking composition of collagen, Mussel Adhesive Protein, and select glycosaminoglycans, engineered to expedite scar-free skin regeneration. This gel specifically interacts with type I collagen, fine-tuning the speed and extent of fiber formation. In a rat skin resection study, the glue significantly hastened wound healing and enhanced the dermal collagen structure, revealing uniformly sized and neatly aligned collagen fibers.
 
Harnessing Mussel Adhesive Proteins in Hydrogel Scaffolds
Polymeric hydrogels, owing to their resemblance to the extracellular matrix (ECM), are highly regarded as scaffold materials in tissue engineering. To foster cell adhesion, these scaffolds are often enhanced with bioactive molecules. The mussel protein Pvfp5β has emerged as a powerful enhancer of cell adhesion on hydrogel scaffolds. In studies involving mouse embryonic fibroblast NIH-3T3 cells cultured on these hydrogels, Pvfp5β was found to promote cell adhesion, spreading, and colonization.
 
Double-Layer Adhesive Microneedle Bandage Powered by Biofunctionalized Mussel Protein
By genetically fusing four angiogenic peptides to bioengineered mussel adhesive proteins (MAPs), we have created a cutting-edge double-layer adhesive microneedle bandage (DL-AMNB). This innovative bandage, which comprises a biofunctional MAP base and a regenerated silk fibroin (SF)-based tip, harnesses expandable microneedles to uniformly deliver regenerative factors. In a rat myocardial infarction (MI) model, the DL-AMNB system exhibited superior myocardial preservation and regenerative effects on cardiac remodeling, likely due to the prolonged retention of biofunctionalized MAPs.
 
Prevention of Seroma Using Mussel Protein in a Rat Mastectomy Model
We explored the potential of a tissue adhesive, Cell-Tak, derived from proteins secreted by marine mussels, in preventing seroma formation post-mastectomy in rats. The experimental group received the external adhesive prior to wound suturing, while the control group received no such treatment. Notably, rats treated with Cell-Tak exhibited a significant reduction in seroma volume. Further histological analysis revealed no foreign body reaction attributed to the adhesive. These findings suggest that Cell-Tak tissue adhesive could be a valuable asset for mastectomy patients, effectively minimizing seroma formation.
 
Adhesion Protein-Based Angiogenesis Mimics Spatiotemporal Sequential Release of Angiogenic Factors
We have developed a therapeutic angiogenesis platform using bioengineered mussel adhesive proteins (MAPs) that spatiotemporally releases angiogenic growth factors in a mucus-rich environment. This platform utilizes polycationic MAPs and polyanionic hyaluronic acid to form complex coacervate droplets, which are then gelled into microparticles, efficiently encapsulating platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). When combined with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), the platform forms a hydrogel that exhibits excellent adhesion, underwater durability, and elasticity similar to the target tissue. In models of full-thickness wounds and myocardial infarction, this platform has demonstrated effective angiogenesis and functional regeneration as an angiogenesis-inducing therapy.
 
Introducing a Novel Wound Sealant
Wound sealants offer an alternative approach to sealing surgical and non-surgical wounds, as well as stopping external bleeding from trauma before hospitalization. A range of biomaterials has been investigated for this purpose, including novel sealant materials such as mussel adhesive proteins, keratins, dendrimers, and hydrogels that form in situ. Among these, fibrin sealants are currently the most widely used in clinical settings.
 
Adhesion-Insoluble Liquid Containing Stem Cells for Myocardial Infarction Regeneration
An innovative mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapeutic platform utilizing adhesion protein-based insoluble concentrated liquid systems (APICLS) is introduced for myocardial infarction regeneration. This platform boasts high encapsulation efficiency and cell survival rates for MSCs, fostering integration into damaged tissues. It achieves sustained cell persistence and maximizes paracrine effects. The bioactive molecules released by APICLS, coupled with MSCs, induce angiogenesis and cardioprotection, ultimately restoring cardiac tissue contractility.
 
The Biomedical and Clinical Significance of Mussel-Inspired Polymers and Materials
Mussel adhesive protein (MAP), a liquid protein containing 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) and catechol groups, transforms rapidly into a solid, waterproof adhesive. MAP's adhesion process has spurred the creation of synthetic materials for diverse biomedical applications, encompassing antiproliferative, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial activities, and adhesive capabilities. Strategies to enhance dopamine/metal ion chelation, addressing DOPA's susceptibility to oxidation, are discussed. The allure of mussel-inspired materials (MIMs) for synthetic adaptation is also examined.
 
 
Biomaterials and Biomimetic Applications
Biomimetic Surface Engineering of Biomaterials Using Recombinant Mussel Adhesion Proteins
Surface engineering is a pivotal technique to customize new functionalities in biomaterials, enhancing clinical performance. Advances in genetic engineering and molecular biotechnology have enabled the design of artificial adhesive proteins derived from marine mussels. Recombinant mussel adhesive protein (MAP) coatings have garnered attention due to their simplicity, adaptability, stability under physiological conditions, and favorable cellular interactions. MAP can be tailored through genetic fusion with functional peptides or immobilization strategies to create tailored surfaces with enhanced biocompatibility and functionality.
 
Complex Coacervates Based on Recombinant Mussel Adhesive Proteins
Complex coacervates, formed from polyion mixtures, find extensive applications in industries spanning pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and food processing. The development of MAP-based complex coacervates as potent underwater adhesives has been explored due to their water insolubility and adhesive characteristics. These coacervates offer insights into their physical properties and present an alternative to traditional invasive surgical repairs.
 
Novel Extracellular Matrix Mimics Based on Mussel Adhesion Proteins Fused to Functional Peptides
The engineered mussel adhesion protein (MAP) fp-151 holds promise as a biocompatible cell or tissue adhesive. To enhance cell adhesion and proliferation, an extracellular matrix (ECM) mimic was designed by fusing MAP with a biological functional peptide. The adhesion and proliferation properties of this ECM mimic were tested in various cell lines and exhibited superior or comparable performance in MC3T3-E1, ATDC5, and 3T3-L1 cells compared to commercially available cell adhesion materials. This mimic holds promise in cell culture and tissue engineering applications and can be extended to incorporate other tissue-specific cell recognition motifs to facilitate target cell attachment to artificial ECM surfaces.
 
Mixing Mussel Adhesive Protein with Gelatin into Nanotube Titanium Dental Implants Enhances Osseointegration
We explored whether the integration of mussel adhesion protein (MAP) and gelatin into nanotube titanium (Ti) dental implants could bolster bone integration and bone formation. Utilizing various cell and molecular biological techniques, we assessed the biocompatibility of MAP/Gel. Our findings indicate that MAP/Gel activates the FAK-PI3K-MAPKs-Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, thus promoting osteogenic differentiation. In a rat mandibular model, MAP/Gel-loaded Ti implants exhibited improved bone integration and bone formation, suggesting its potential for enhancing osseointegration in dental implant applications.
 
Nanostructured Composite Layers of Mussel Adhesion Proteins and Ceria Nanoparticles
Mussel adhesion proteins are highly regarded as exceptional materials for fabricating robust, thin inorganic-organic composite membranes due to their exceptional affinity for diverse surfaces. The adhesive film was crafted through a layer-by-layer deposition method, utilizing positively charged mussel adhesion protein Mefp-1 and negatively charged ceria nanoparticles. A quartz crystal microbalance (QCM-D) was employed to track the film's formation on a silicon dioxide surface, revealing a nearly linear increase in the number of deposited layers. The concentration of Mefp-1 plays a pivotal role in determining the membrane's properties, as higher protein concentrations result in stiffer membranes. To delve into the surface nanomechanical properties of these multilayer films, quantitative nanomechanical mapping (QNM) was utilized, revealing that the Young's modulus of the coating's outer region escalates with an increase in Mefp-1 concentration.
 
Materials Engineering and Protective Applications
The Application of a Nanocomposite Membrane Incorporating Mussel Adhesion Protein in Carbon Steel Corrosion Protection
The impact of heat treatment up to 200°C on the corrosion resistance of nanocomposite films composed of mussel adhesion protein (MAP), CeO2 nanoparticles, and Na2HPO4, deposited on carbon steel, was examined. A range of characterization techniques, including scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy, were employed to analyze the morphological, microstructural, and chemical changes within the nanocomposite films. The corrosion resistance of both unheated and heated nanocomposite films was evaluated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and the findings indicate that the corrosion resistance of these nanocomposite films on carbon steel improves over time. Heat treatment contributes to a reduction in water molecules within the film, thus enhancing its protective properties.
 
Nanocomposite Film Incorporating Mussel Adhesion Protein Enhances Corrosion Protection of Carbon Steel
The influence of heat treatment up to 200°C on the corrosion resistance of nanocomposite films comprising mussel adhesion protein (MAP), CeO2 nanoparticles, and Na2HPO4 deposited on carbon steel was investigated. The films were characterized through scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was employed to assess the corrosion resistance of the films, while in situ AFM measurements provided insights into the corrosion process. The findings indicated an improvement in the corrosion resistance of the nanocomposite films following heat treatment. Analysis revealed that heat treatment reduced water molecules in the film, strengthened cross-linking and cohesion, resulting in a denser film structure.
 
Corrosion Protection and Self-Healing Abilities of Nanocomposite Films Incorporating Mussel Adhesion Protein and CeO2 Nanoparticles
Nanocomposite films composed of mussel adhesion protein (MAP) and CeO2 nanoparticles were explored as an environmentally friendly alternative for corrosion protection of carbon steel. These submicron-thick films were deposited onto carbon steel surfaces via a single-step impregnation method and characterized using various techniques. The nanocomposite films exhibited remarkable self-healing capabilities and provided excellent corrosion protection for carbon steel in a neutral 0.1 M NaCl solution. The self-healing ability was attributed to the functional groups (catechol) of MAP, where Fe ions promoted the formation of Fe-catechol complexes, effectively delaying localized corrosion.
 
Study on Mussel Adhesion Proteins as Flash Rust Inhibitors
Proteins extracted from the adhesive system of the common blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) were examined for their chemical properties in inhibiting flash rust formation on steel. Mussel foot proteins (MAPs) 1, 3, and 5 were isolated and applied to steel surfaces to evaluate their efficacy in suppressing flash rust. The results of this study offer potential insights into the utilization of mussel adhesion proteins as effective flash rust inhibitors.
 
Adhesion of Mussel Foot Protein 1 to Silica
Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was employed to quantify the adhesion of mussel foot protein 1 (Mfp-1) to a silica substrate under varying ionic conditions. Monovalent salts (NaCl, KCl) exhibited a lesser degree of influence on enhancing adhesion, whereas divalent salts (MgCl2, CaCl2, Na2SO4) led to multiple adhesion jumps, potentially attributed to the formation of complexes between the 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-L-alanine and o-quinone catechol groups of Mfp-1 and metal ions. Notably, the highest adhesion was observed with the addition of salts containing trivalent ions (FeCl3), suggesting a significant impact of ion type and concentration on adhesion.
 
Effect of Mussel Adhesive Protein Coating on Alkali-Treated Nanonetwork Structured Titanium
The biological performance of alkali-treated titanium nanonetwork structures (TNS) coated with mussel adhesive protein (MAP), designated as TNS-MAP, was investigated. TNS-MAP exhibited excellent hydrophilicity and surface roughness, significantly enhancing initial cell adhesion. Furthermore, it surpassed the control group in terms of cell adhesion, proliferation, and osteogenesis-related gene expression. In vivo studies demonstrated that TNS-MAP promoted new bone growth, indicating its potential as an effective composite implant with remarkable biocompatibility.
 
Mussel Adhesive Protein as an Adhesive for Wood Furniture
The adhesive industry is undergoing a shift towards high-quality and environmentally friendly adhesives, gradually replacing chemical adhesives with non-hazardous alternatives. Bacterially produced recombinant mussel adhesive protein (MAP) was evaluated for its potential application as an adhesive for wooden furniture. MAP wood adhesive, formulated as an inclusion-type adhesive, offers economic and non-hazardous benefits, with undetectable volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and heavy metals. This adhesive exhibits adequate bonding strength to wood under dry conditions and maintains robust adhesion across varying environmental conditions.
 
 
References:
 1. Suhyeok Kim et al. Oriented in situ immobilization of a functional tyrosinase on microcrystalline cellulose effectively incorporates DOPA residues in bioengineered mussel adhesive protein .Biotechnology Journal (2021)
2. Kai Wang et al. Functional Peptides from Laminin-1 Improve the Cell Adhesion Capacity of Recombinant Mussel Adhesive Protein. Protein and peptide letters(2017)
3. Chang Sup Kim et al. Mussel adhesive protein-based whole cell array biosensor for detection of organophosphorus compounds. Biosensors and Bioelectronics(2013)
4. Jin Hee Kim et al. Mussel adhesive protein-coated titanium oxide nanoparticles for effective NO removal from versatile substrates .Chemical Engineering Journal(2019)
5. Chengdong Chen et al. Heating-Induced Enhancement Of Corrosion Protection Of Carbon Steel By A Nanocomposite Film Containing Mussel Adhesive Protein .Journal of the Electrochemical Society(2017)
6. Young Hoon Song et al. Mussel adhesive protein as an environmentally-friendly harmless wood furniture adhesive .International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives(2016)
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12. Henry T Peng et al. Novel wound sealants: biomaterials and applications. Expert review of medical devices(2014)
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14. Eun Young Jeon et al. Natural healing-inspired collagen-targeting surgical protein glue for accelerated scarless skin regeneration .Biomaterials(2017)
15. Yu Yi et al. Genetic fusion of mussel foot protein to ZZ protein improves target detection in solid-phase immunoassays. Journal of Immunological Methods(2023)
16. Douglas C. Hansen et al. Inhibition of flash rusting of HY80 by a mussel adhesive protein: Characterizing the interaction of MeFP-5 with a high strength low alloy steel .Electrochimica Acta(2019)
17. Junjie Wu et al. TiO2 nanoscale ionic materials using mussel adhesive proteins inspired ligand .Applied Surface Science(2018)
18. Ping-Li Jiang et al. Controllable degradation of medical magnesium by electrodeposited composite films of mussel adhesive protein (Mefp-1) and chitosan. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science(2016)
19. William F. Nelson et al. Investigations Of Mussel Adhesive Proteins As Flash Rust Inhibitors .Journal of the Electrochemical Society(2016)
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21. Bin Xue et al. Hydrogel tapes for fault-tolerant strong wet adhesion .
22. Ji-Eun Kim et al. Mussel adhesive protein blended with gelatin loaded into nanotube titanium dental implants enhances osseointegration .Drug Delivery and Translational Research(2020)