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Utilization of PVP in Disinfection and Sterilization Applications

Time:2024-04-28 Hits:121
Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), a nonionic polymer compound derived from the polymerization of N-vinylpyrrolidone (NVP) under specific conditions, possesses unique physicochemical properties. Its methylene groups and pyrrolidone rings contribute to its non-polar, lipophilic nature, while the lactam moiety within the molecule exhibits strong polarity and hydrophilic behavior. PVP, along with cellulose derivatives and acrylic acid compounds, stands as one of the three most crucial pharmaceutical excipients in synthetic drugs, highlighting its significance. Its versatility extends to various industries, including pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, food and beverage production, aquaculture, inks and coatings, as well as textile printing and dyeing.
When it comes to PVP's application in the realm of disinfection and sterilization, it's noteworthy that PVP itself lacks sterilizing capabilities. However, its remarkable ability to form complexes with small molecules has led to significant advancements. PVP fungicides, particularly those formulated with antibacterial substances, represent a prime example. Povidone-iodine (PVP-I), a commonly used complex, demonstrates broad-spectrum bactericidal effects.
Categorizing PVP based on its intended use, we have industrial, pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetic grades. Furthermore, depending on the polymerization methods employed, PVP can be classified as NVP homopolymer, copolymer, and cross-linked polymer. Notably, cross-linked polymer research and development have been more recent, positioning it as a high-end product in the market. The K value, a metric used to characterize the average molecular weight of PVP, is inversely proportional to the viscosity and adhesiveness of the material. In practical terms, higher K values correlate with increased viscosity and stronger adhesive properties. Commercially available PVP products typically come in various K value ranges, including K15, K30, K90, and more.
Antibacterial applications of PVP
PVP itself does not possess sterilization capabilities, but its remarkable ability to form complexes with small molecules makes it an invaluable tool. PVP fungicides, specifically complexes of PVP and antibacterial substances, are prime examples of this. Povidone-iodine (PVP-I), a commonly used complex, maintains the broad-spectrum bactericidal effect of iodine.
During application, iodine is gradually released from the PVP polymer. PVP's affinity for the cell membrane facilitates the direct delivery of iodine to the bacterial cell surface, enabling it to perform its sterilizing function. The primary targets of iodine are bacterial cytoplasm and cytoplasmic membranes, resulting in the rapid elimination of various types of bacteria, fungi, and viruses. Additionally, PVP-based disinfectants help mitigate allergic skin reactions and address the instability and irritating nature of traditional iodine solutions.
Currently, PVP-based antibacterial disinfectants have found widespread application in healthcare settings. They are commonly used for surgical operations, medical equipment disinfection, wound care, burn treatment, ulcer management, and the disinfection of various human skin and mucous membranes. In laboratory settings, they are employed for disinfecting and sterilizing instruments, petri dishes, reagent bottles, and other equipment to prevent contamination by bacteria and other microorganisms that could compromise experimental accuracy.
Furthermore, these disinfectants are utilized in food and catering hygiene, including food preservation, disinfection in the catering industry, and the sanitization of food processing facilities and refrigerators. In aquaculture, they are effective in preventing and treating diseases in fish, shellfish, shrimp, and crabs, while also demonstrating significant benefits in livestock and poultry disease control. Gradually, these PVP-based disinfectants are replacing traditional iodine, chlorine, and mercury-containing fungicides due to their superior performance and safety profile.
Antibacterial Advantages
Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), an engineering plastic, finds widespread application in diverse fields such as electronic appliances, automobiles, aerospace, machinery, the food industry, and medical equipment. Additionally, its uses extend to papermaking, water treatment, detergents, adhesives, cosmetics, and beyond. In the realm of biological research, PVP is primarily explored for its potential as a non-viral gene vector.
Application in Gene Carriers
PVP can serve as an alternative to glutaraldehyde in disinfection and sterilization, with the degree of substitution being contingent on the concentration utilized and the specific application context. Its antibacterial advantages are numerous:
High Safety: PVP poses lesser harm to humans and the environment compared to glutaraldehyde.
Non-Toxic Nature: PVP is devoid of toxic substances, eliminating the risk of irritation or harm to the human body.
Antibacterial Properties: PVP's ability to form complexes and adsorb bacteria and other microorganisms effectively reduces their presence on the skin, thus enhancing the antibacterial efficacy of accompanying substances.
PVP Product List:
Item number
Molecular Weight
Polyvinyl pyrrolidone K90 (PVP K90)
Polyvinyl pyrrolidone K30 (PVP K30)
Polyvinyl pyrrolidone K25 (PVP K25)
Polyvinyl pyrrolidone K17 (PVP K17)