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Properties and Application Scenarios of Kojibiose (CAS: 2140-29-6)

Time:2024-05-07 Hits:109
Kojibiose, alternatively known as α-Glucose-α-Glucoside, is a disaccharide comprised of two glucose molecules linked by an α-glucosidic bond. Its molecular formula is C12H22O11, and its molecular weight stands at 342.3. This compound is a water-soluble solid, boasting a robust molecular structure due to the presence of glycosidic bonds. This structural robustness allows Kojibiose to endure elevated temperatures and a range of acid-base environments.
Within biological systems, Glucose-α-Glucoside plays pivotal roles. Specifically, in glucose metabolism, it serves as an energy storage form and participates in vital biological processes such as sugar recognition and cell surface signal transduction.


Advantages of Kojibiose

Health Benefits
Kojibiose, an orally available prebiotic disaccharide, specifically inhibits the activity of α-glucosidase I. This unique property not only promotes the proliferation of bifidobacteria, lactobacilli, and eubacteria but also exhibits antitoxic activity. Furthermore, kojibiose can significantly reduce the liver's expression of inflammatory markers, contributing to numerous health benefits. These attributes have garnered widespread attention in drug screening platforms.
Safety and Stability
Kojibiose, as a food additive, enjoys extensive recognition for its safety. Additionally, its stable chemical structure ensures a long shelf life under appropriate storage conditions, typically between 2-8°C.


Versatile Applications

Kobiose finds applications across diverse industries, including food, beverages, and feed. In the food industry, it serves as a natural sweetener, enhancing taste. In the beverage industry, it not only adds flavor but also boosts the nutritional value of products. In the feed industry, kojibiose acts as an additive, enhancing the immunity and growth rate of animals.


Functional Food Application Scenarios

As a Prebiotic and Alpha-Glucosidase Inhibitor
Kojibiose, a unique disaccharide, exhibits prebiotic properties, fostering the growth of beneficial intestinal flora. Additionally, its role as an α-glucosidase inhibitor may aid in blood sugar regulation, making it particularly beneficial for individuals with diabetes.

Sweetness and Sensory Properties of Kojibiose
Extensive research has been conducted on the sweetness and sensory properties of kojibiose, focusing on how its chain length, glycosidic bond type, and monomer composition influence its sweetness. It has been discovered that disaccharides generally exhibit a higher sweetness value than trisaccharides, while trisaccharides are sweeter than oligosaccharide mixtures with a polymerization degree higher than 3. Kojibiose's relative sweetness falls within the range of 15% to 25%, making it a promising candidate for partial sugar substitution or as a balancer when combined with high-intensity sweeteners. These findings provide a scientific basis for its applications in various industries.


Kobiose as a Potential Prebiotic
Kojibiose and Aspergillus niger are gaining recognition as potential prebiotics and alternative sweeteners in a wide range of food products. Prebiotics are non-digestible carbohydrates that promote the proliferation of beneficial bacteria in the gut, thus contributing to gut health maintenance and improvement. Kojibiose's increasing use in processed foods and fermented beverages, along with its unique physiological functions and health benefits, positions it as a valuable addition to the food industry.

Structure-Function Relationship of Kobiose
A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of glycosidic bonds in seven rare and novel natural disaccharides on intestinal bacteria, particularly the impact of kojibiose (Glc-α1,2-Glc) on intestinal microbiota remodeling. The response of inoculum from four donors to 1% (w/v) disaccharide supplementation was examined through 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The results revealed that kojibiose stimulates the growth of bifidobacteria, albeit not significantly. However, after preconditioning the inoculum in kojibiose medium, the subsequent re-inoculation into kojibiose and fiberose-added media significantly induced the growth of Bifidobacterium by 44% and 55%, respectively. This study underscores the significance of the disaccharide's structure-function relationship and its potential in modulating gut microbiota.


Enzymatic Production and Digestibility Screening of Kojibiose
The enzymatic production of kojibiose analogs and their suitability as food ingredients are assessed through in vitro digestibility screening. Research indicates that kojibiose's low digestibility and minimal impact on energy metabolism are attributes that depend on its specific structure. This low-calorie profile positions these novel disaccharides as prime candidates for low-calorie food applications, thereby aiding in the development of novel healthy food products to cater to the market's demand for healthier dietary options.


Structure and Function of Kojibiose Hydrolase α-1,2-Glucosidase
The bacterial α-1,2-glucosidase, belonging to the GH65 family, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of kojibiose, has been structurally characterized. Remarkably, this enzyme does not require inorganic phosphate for its catalytic activity, relying instead on an anomeric inversion mechanism. This discovery offers a novel enzymatic platform for kojibiose's application in the food industry and may pave the way for novel food processing technologies.


Pharmaceutical Industry Application Scenarios

Antioxidant Evaluation
The antioxidant potential of kojibiose hydrolyzate derived from weak acid hydrolysis of clam polysaccharide was investigated. The hydrolyzate comprises nine oligoglucose species with degrees of polymerization (DP) ranging from 1 to 7, undergoing characteristic transformations during the hydrolysis process. The study revealed that HCl hydrolyzate exhibits superior antioxidant activity, which further intensifies with an increase in oligosaccharide content. These findings suggest that kojibiose and its hydrolyzed derivatives have potential applications in food preservation and functional food development. Kojibiose's significant antioxidant properties are especially valuable in preventing oxidative stress and associated diseases.

As an early biomarker for type 1 diabetes
In studies of type 1 diabetes (T1D), metabolomic analysis of the NOD mouse model revealed that kojibiose levels are elevated in diabetes progressors, indicating its potential as an early biomarker candidate. Moreover, kojibiose exhibits minimal metabolic effects on intestinal microbiota in vitro, suggesting its low cariogenic properties, which are consistent with its anti-metabolite behavior observed in monocultures. Given these properties of kojibiose and its potential use as a sweetener and prebiotic in food and medicine, it merits further investigation.


Regulation of oral and intestinal microbial digestion
Kojibiose demonstrates various positive effects on oral health and gut microbial balance. Firstly, in terms of oral health, kojibiose is proven to have low cariogenicity, enabling it to maintain the stability of the oral microbial community and slow down dental caries formation. By reducing the acidification rate of oral bacteria, kojibiose effectively decelerates rapid acidification in the oral cavity, thus aiding in the prevention and control of dental caries. Secondly, in terms of intestinal microbial balance, kojibiose's effect on intestinal microbiota helps maintain a healthy intestinal balance. It promotes the growth of beneficial bacteria, such as Bifidobacteria, while inhibiting the growth of other bacterial species, contributing to the stability of the intestinal microecology. Additionally, kojibiose exhibits prebiotic properties that aid in promoting a healthy gut microbiota. These structural and functional relationships have significant implications for driving intestinal communities and can aid in the development of easily digestible and selective prebiotics that offer predictive characteristics for intestinal health.

Improvement of metabolic changes induced by eicosanoids in hyperglycemic rats
Kobiose (KJ), a prebiotic disaccharide, has demonstrated the ability to alleviate liver dysfunction triggered by saturated arachidic acid (ARa) in hyperglycemic rats. Experimental findings indicate that daily KJ supplementation significantly reduces inflammatory marker expression in the liver and modulates metabolic abnormalities caused by ARa. Notably, KJ supplementation effectively improved liver function, normalizing both TAG and N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine levels in plasma. This study suggests that kojibiose supplementation may represent a potential therapeutic approach for liver damage associated with hyperglycemia.

Immunochemical study on cross-reactivity of anti-pneumococcal sera
Through the investigation of the cross-reactivity between multiple glucans and varying types of anti-pneumococcal sera, specific interactions between them have been identified. Glucans with a high percentage of 1,3-like linkages displayed the strongest cross-reactivity with antibody N, while those with a higher proportion of 1,2-like linkages exhibited weaker cross-reactivity. Kobiose emerged as the most effective inhibitor of the anti-SXII cross-reaction with anti-SXII antibodies, highlighting the specific role of distinct structural units in this cross-reactive phenomenon.


Breeding Industry Application Scenarios

Feed Composition
The innovative feed composition harnesses the power of a solvent extract from Ptecteticus tenebrifer larva powder, enhancing its nutritional value through lactic acid bacteria fermentation. This fermentation product incorporates Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactococcus lactis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, and Lactobacillus brevis, among others. The formulation is designed to optimize lipid metabolism by incorporating carbon sources like kojibiose, galactose, sucrose, starch, and glucose. It also aims to boost the content of unsaturated fatty acids, particularly omega-3, omega-6, and omega-9 fatty acids. This not only aids in promoting animal growth but also elevates the proportion of beneficial bacteria in the gut, ultimately enhancing the overall well-being of the animals.


Product List

Product
CAS
Level
Packaging
Kobiose
2140-29-6
Food Grade
1Kg; 25Kg
Kobiose
2140-29-6
Pharmaceutical Grade
1Kg; 25Kg
Kobiose
2140-29-6
Standard
5mg; 10mg


References:

1. JW Goodman, et al. immunochemical studies on cross-reactions of antipneumococcal sera .4. cross-reactions of horse type 22 antipneumococcal serum with dextrans. Journal of Immunology(1964)
2. S Sugii, et al. Immunochemical Specificity Of The Combining Site Of Murine Myeloma Protein Cal20 Tepc1035 Reactive With Dextrans. Journal of Experimental Medicine(1981)
3. Amar van Laar, et al. Metabolism and Health Effects of Rare Sugars in a CACO-2/HepG2 Coculture Model. Nutrients(2022)
4. Jose Moises Laparra, et al. Kojibiose ameliorates arachidic acid-induced metabolic alterations in hyperglycaemic rats. The British journal of nutrition(2015)
5. María Luz Sanz, et al. Influence of disaccharide structure on prebiotic selectivity in vitro. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry(2005)
6. Keiko Sakakibara, et al. Immunochemical studies on dextrans: Distribution of α1→2 and α1→6 specific determinants of dextran NRRL B1397. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications(1976)
7. Laura Ruiz-Aceituno, et al. Sweetness and sensory properties of commercial and novel oligosaccharides of prebiotic potential. LWT-Food Science and Technology(2018)
8. Stanley O, et al. Glycosidic linkage of rare and new-to-nature disaccharides reshapes gut microbiota in vitro.. Food Chemistry(2023)
9. YAMAUCHI, et al. Crystalline α-Kojibiose. Nature(1961)
10. Koen Beerens, et al. Biocatalytic synthesis of the rare sugar kojibiose: process scale-up and application testing.. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry(2017)
11. Shari Dhaene, et al. Sweet Biotechnology: Enzymatic Production and Digestibility Screening of Novel Kojibiose and Nigerose Analogues. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry(2022)


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