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Rhodiola Salidroside: A Versatile Pharmacological Agent

Time:2023-11-03 Hits:173

Seebio Rhodiola salidroside(CAS: 10338-51-9), also known as Rhodiola glycoside or salidroside, is a natural bioactive compound with remarkable medicinal value. It exhibits outstanding therapeutic potential in the fields of metabolism and cardiovascular health. Rhodiola salidroside possesses a wide range of pharmacological activities, including anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-hypoxia, anti-fatigue, anti-aging, antiviral, and anti-exercise fatigue properties, among others. Its potential mechanisms of action primarily involve the regulation of gene and protein expression, offering valuable insights into further research on the potential roles of Rhodiola salidroside in the treatment of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases.

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Product Basic Information



Molecular Formula

Molecular Mass



Rhodiola Salidroside




Pale yellow to white powder

20% , 50% ,>98%

Primary Uses of Rhodiola Salidroside in the Food, Dietary Supplements, Cosmetics, and Pharmaceutical Industries:

Food Industry

Rhodiola Salidroside is commonly used as a food additive, especially in functional foods. It is believed to enhance the human immune system and increase the body's adaptability to stress. Therefore, it is widely added to energy drinks, nutrition bars, health beverages, and other health foods to provide extra energy and boost immune function.

Effects of Rhodiola Salidroside on the Immune Function of Sepsis Mice Spleen: Research has found that sepsis causes significant changes in the immune function of mice spleens, including elevated cytokine levels, increased T-cell numbers, and increased chemokine expression. However, after treatment with Rhodiola Salidroside, these abnormal phenomena are significantly improved, indicating that Rhodiola Salidroside helps regulate the immune function of septic mice.

Effects of Rhodiola Salidroside on Immune Markers in Mice Infected with Influenza Virus: Rhodiola Salidroside can reduce lung inflammation in mice after influenza virus infection while decreasing the release of inflammatory factors in serum and lung tissues. This may be due to its enhancement of immune function, mitigating the immune function decline caused by viral infections. Higher doses of Rhodiola Salidroside perform better in these aspects.

Research Progress on the Use of Rhodiola Salidroside in the Treatment of Diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome: Rhodiola Salidroside, an active component extracted from Rhodiola, has therapeutic potential for diabetes. It reduces oxidative stress levels and provides preventive and protective effects. Additionally, Rhodiola Salidroside improves glucose metabolism through various pathways, including inhibiting gluconeogenesis, activating cellular metabolic pathways, regulating liver glucose metabolism, protecting pancreatic beta cells, and promoting glycogen synthesis, thereby lowering blood sugar levels. These studies provide a theoretical basis for the development of new anti-diabetic medications.

Dietary Industry

Rhodiola Salidroside is used in dietary supplements as a natural antioxidant. It helps reduce oxidative stress in the body, minimizing damage from free radicals and contributing to the protection of cell health. Dietary supplements often include Rhodiola Salidroside as a primary component to enhance resistance and overall well-being.

Studies on the Protective Effect of Rhodiola Salidroside (SAL) in HUVECs under Oxidative Stress Induced by Homocysteine (Hcy) in vitro Culture: SAL pretreatment enhances cell survival, reduces oxidative stress damage markers such as LDH and MDA levels, and increases SOD activity in HUVECs exposed to Hcy-induced oxidative stress. Furthermore, SAL's action is associated with reduced intracellular ROS levels and the upregulation of antioxidant genes Nrf2, HO-1, and NQO1, suggesting that SAL protects HUVECs from Hcy-induced oxidative stress by boosting cellular antioxidant capacity and activating the Nrf2 signaling pathway.

Research on the Regulation of Rhodiola Salidroside on Vascular Endothelial Cells under High Glucose Conditions: The high glucose group exhibited higher rates of cell apoptosis, increased mRNA and protein expression levels of Bax, Caspase-3, NOX2, NOX4, and elevated MDA content in the culture medium. Simultaneously, mRNA and protein expression levels of Bcl-2 in cells and SOD and GSH-Px content in the culture medium decreased. In contrast, the Rhodiola Salidroside group showed lower rates of cell apoptosis, reduced mRNA and protein expression levels of Bax, Caspase-3, NOX2, NOX4, and lower MDA content in the culture medium. Additionally, mRNA and protein expression levels of Bcl-2 in cells and SOD and GSH-Px content in the culture medium increased. This suggests that Rhodiola Salidroside has an inhibitory effect on vascular endothelial cell apoptosis and oxidative stress in a high glucose environment.

Effects of Rhodiola Salidroside on Oxidative Stress Damage in Amateur Marathon Runners after Load Training: Participants took Rhodiola Salidroside for one month and then engaged in load training, with blood and urine samples collected for analysis. Results showed that after load training, serum antioxidant capacity decreased, myocardial microdamage increased, and several potential biomarkers, including valine, were detected. However, supplementation with Rhodiola Salidroside led to increased serum antioxidant enzyme activity, reduced myocardial damage, and significant improvement in some biomarkers. The study suggests that Rhodiola Salidroside may improve oxidative stress and myocardial damage in amateur marathon runners by promoting amino acid and lipid metabolism, enhancing fat utilization, and reducing protein consumption.

Effects of Rhodiola Salidroside on Exercise-Induced Fatigue in Rats: After treadmill running, untreated rats exhibited shorter endurance, lower antioxidant enzyme activity, decreased mitochondrial function, and increased oxidative stress. However, rats treated with Rhodiola Salidroside showed better endurance, higher antioxidant enzyme activity, improved mitochondrial function, and reduced oxidative stress. This suggests that Rhodiola Salidroside may alleviate exercise-induced fatigue by activating antioxidant pathways.

Cosmetics Industry

Rhodiola Salidroside is widely used in skincare and beauty products. Thanks to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, it helps slow down the skin aging process, reduce skin damage, and imperfections. It is commonly found in skincare products, creams, and antioxidant serums to provide skin care and protection.

Treatment Effects of Rhodiola Salidroside on Photodamaged Skin in SD Rats: Research has found that Rhodiola Salidroside can improve the skin structure of photodamaged rats, reducing thickening of the stratum corneum, epidermis, and dermis, as well as collagen fiber disruption. Compared to the model group, the Rhodiola Salidroside group showed significant reductions in reactive oxygen species, malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, inflammatory factors, and oxidative stress levels in the skin. Antioxidant enzyme activity also significantly increased. Moreover, the Rhodiola Salidroside group exhibited reduced cell apoptosis and alleviation of collagen protein degradation. Overall, Rhodiola Salidroside demonstrates excellent therapeutic effects on the skin of photodamaged rats, possibly achieved by reducing inflammation and oxidative stress, inhibiting cell apoptosis, and mitigating collagen protein degradation.

Research on the Antioxidant and Whitening Effects of Rhodiola Emulsion: The optimal mixture ratio of Rhodiola extract and ginseng extract for antioxidant and whitening effects was determined to be 5:3, and an emulsion was prepared. Using orthogonal experimental optimization, the best formulation was obtained. Under these conditions, the emulsion had a total flavonoid content of 1.84 mg/mL. The emulsion exhibited 40.17%, 48.27%, and 38.22% clearance rates for DPPH, ABTS, and PTIO free radicals, respectively. It also showed inhibitory rates of 40.49% and 35.64% against tyrosinase and melanin. The study also found that the medium and high-dose groups exhibited higher oxidative stress-related protein expression. Therefore, the emulsion containing Rhodiola and ginseng demonstrated significant antioxidant and whitening effects.

Anti-Skin Aging Effects of Different Rhodiola Extracts: Four different Rhodiola extracts, including total saponins, total flavonoids, polysaccharides, and volatile oils, were studied for their in vitro anti-skin aging effects using human skin fibroblasts and keratinocytes exposed to mid-wave UV irradiation. The results showed that all four extracts had concentration-dependent anti-aging effects, with the efficacy ranking as saponins > polysaccharides > flavonoids > volatile oils. Notably, saponins at a concentration of 800 μg/mL had anti-aging effects twice as potent as the vitamin C control group. In another cell type (HaCaT cells), polysaccharides, flavonoids, and volatile oils exhibited similar anti-aging effects. Therefore, different Rhodiola extracts have a certain anti-aging and repair ability in human skin cells, providing a theoretical basis for the development of Rhodiola-based anti-aging and radiation protection products.

Effects of Ginsenoside Rb1 and Rhodiola Salidroside on Light-Induced Oxidative Stress in Skin Cells: This study used HaCaT skin cells cultured in RMPI-1640 medium containing 10% calf serum. After UVB irradiation, ginsenoside Rb1 and Rhodiola Salidroside were added. The results showed that both substances enhanced the activity of intracellular antioxidant enzymes, such as SOD, GSH, and CAT, while reducing MDA production. These differences were statistically significant compared to the group that did not use the substances (all P < 0.01). Therefore, ginsenoside Rb1 and Rhodiola Salidroside have the characteristics of enhancing intracellular antioxidant enzyme activity, inhibiting lipid peroxidation, and possessing antioxidant properties, making them suitable for combating skin photoaging.

Pharmaceutical industry

Rhodiola Salidroside has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for its various medicinal properties, showing positive effects in areas such as anti-tumor, myocardial protection, anti-thrombotic, neuroprotection, and stress disorder. This natural plant compound exhibits potential therapeutic and protective effects in various disease research, highlighting its extensive medical applications.

Rhodiola Salidroside possesses significant anti-tumor effects, which are mainly reflected in inhibiting tumor cell proliferation, inducing tumor cell apoptosis, blocking tumor cell migration, regulating tumor cell signaling pathways, enhancing the body's immune function, reducing inflammatory responses, and increasing chemotherapy completion rates. Research on the mechanisms of Rhodiola Salidroside in anti-tumor effects has made significant progress, showing remarkable therapeutic effects in the treatment of various malignant tumors, including respiratory, gastrointestinal, and gynecological tumors. However, further research is needed on complications in malignant tumors and the mitigation of treatment side effects to provide a scientific basis for the use of Rhodiola Salidroside in treating malignant tumors.

Mechanisms of Rhodiola Salidroside in Regulating Ovarian Cancer SKOV-3 Xenograft Growth and Apoptosis-Related Proteins: The study treated human ovarian cancer SKOV-3 xenograft models with Rhodiola Salidroside and found that it significantly inhibited tumor growth. The mechanism may involve increased expression of p53 and Bax, decreased expression of Bcl-2, promotion of ovarian cancer cell apoptosis, and a synergistic effect with cisplatin.

Effects of Rhodiola Salidroside (Sal) on Mouse Thrombosis and Mechanism: Mouse platelets were prepared, and Sal's toxic effects on platelets were assessed using the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) method. The study demonstrated that Rhodiola Salidroside had no significant toxicity on platelets and significantly inhibited clot retraction induced by thrombin, potentially by reducing TXA2 content in platelets.

Protective Effects of Rhodiola Salidroside on Myocardial Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury (I/R): In different Rhodiola Salidroside dose groups, a rat myocardial I/R injury model was created. Animals were given Rhodiola Salidroside via intraperitoneal injection for 7 consecutive days before surgery. After 60 minutes of ischemia followed by 24 hours of reperfusion, the study observed the effects of Rhodiola Salidroside on serum AST, CK, LDH, SOD, NOS activity, and MDA and NO levels. The research found that Rhodiola Salidroside could alleviate myocardial I/R injury, potentially by reducing oxidative stress and inhibiting apoptosis through the activation of Nrf2 and the increase in ERK phosphorylation.

Protective Effects of Rhodiola Salidroside on Aβ 25-35-Induced Cortical Neuronal Damage: The study divided cortical neurons and treated them with different concentrations of Rhodiola Salidroside. After 24 hours, cell viability was measured using a CCK8 assay, LDH release was measured using an LDH assay, and protein expression levels of Nrf2, HO-1, Caspase-3, Bax, Bcl-2, and other proteins were measured using immunohistochemistry and Western blot. The research showed that Rhodiola Salidroside could protect cortical neurons from Aβ 25-35-induced damage by reducing the expression of apoptosis-related proteins and activating the Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway.

Rhodiola Salidroside had a positive impact on rats with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). It improved spatial learning and memory abilities in PTSD rats and reduced anxiety levels. This effect may be achieved by modulating the behavior and cognitive functions of rats through the regulation of hippocampal neuron autophagy pathways, including proteins such as TFEB, LC3, mTOR, and PGC-1α.


[1]. Zhang Yanyan, et al. Experimental Study on the Inhibition of Homocysteine-Induced Oxidative Stress Damage in Vascular Endothelial Cells by Salidroside. Journal of Southwest University for Nationalities (Natural Science Edition) 2020, 46(04).

[2]. Fan Erhong, et al. Regulatory Effect of Salidroside on Apoptosis and Oxidative Stress in Vascular Endothelial Cells under High Glucose Conditions. Medical Theory and Practice 2022, 35(05).

[3]. Jia Yi, et al. Study on the Improvement of Metabolic Pathway Changes Caused by Oxidative Stress Damage in Marathon Amateur Athletes by Salidroside. Natural Product Research and Development 2021, 33(05).

[4]. Zheng Zemeng, et al. Effects of Medicinal Plant Salidroside Combined with Moxibustion on the Biochemical Indexes Related to Exercise-Induced Fatigue in Rats. Molecular Plant Breeding 2022, 20(14).

[5]. Yang Fangfang, et al. Effect of Salidroside on Mitochondrial Free Radical Metabolism and Respiratory Chain Function in Skeletal Muscles of Fatigued Rats. Journal of Yangzhou University (Agricultural and Life Sciences Edition) 2021, 42(05).

[6]. Jin Panshi, et al. Study on the Regulation of Salidroside on Autophagy of Hippocampal Neurons in Rats with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. Progress in Anatomical Sciences 2020, 26(06).

[7]. Li Kunjie, et al. Research on the Treatment of Light-Aging Animal Model in SD Rats by Salidroside. Journal of Practical Dermatology 2022, 15(02).

[8]. Han Yudi, et al. Preparation of Ginseng Salidroside Emulsion and Its Study on Antioxidant and Whitening Effects. Journal of Industrial Chemistry (Chinese and English) 2023, 53(06).

[9]. Zhang Shuangmei, et al. Salidroside Protects Primary Cortical Neurons from Aβ25-35-Induced Damage through Nrf2-HO-1 Pathway. Chinese Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine 2021, 39(01).

[10]. Zhang Yuke, et al. Research Progress on the Antitumor Effects of Salidroside. Jiangsu Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine 2022, 54(08).

[11]. Chang Na, et al. An Overview of the Research on the Antitumor Mechanism of Salidroside. Jilin Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine 2019, 39(10).

[12]. Wang Qiujing, et al. Protective Effect of Salidroside on Myocardial Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Rats. Chinese Journal of Ethnomedicine and Ethnopharmacy 2021, 43(11).

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