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Holothurian Oligopeptides: Multifunctional Bioactive Substances

Time:2023-11-06 Hits:715
Seebio Holothurian oligopeptides have a wide range of potential applications in multiple industries. In the food sector, they exhibit strong antioxidant capabilities and can be used in functional foods and health products. In the pharmaceutical field, they promote wound healing, lower blood sugar, and inhibit inflammation, making them a promising candidate for diabetes treatment and liver damage improvement. Additionally, holothurian oligopeptides play a crucial role in the field of immunology, enhancing immune function, regulating T lymphocyte and NK cell activity. They also show potential in reducing uric acid levels and have anti-tumor properties. This versatility makes them a bioactive substance with broad application prospects.
Holothurian oligopeptide products are obtained through natural extraction, using proteases to hydrolyze fresh sea cucumbers, resulting in holothurian oligopeptides. After refinement, the product primarily consists of small molecular peptides and includes various functional components of protein hydrolysates.
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Holothurian Oligopeptides
Crystalline or Powder
10%  20%  50%  >98%
Holothurian Oligopeptide Functions
Lowering Blood Pressure
Reducing Uric Acid Levels
Slowing Alzheimer's β-Amyloid Protein Aggregation
Applications in the Holothurian Oligopeptide Industry
Food Industry Applications
Free Radical Scavenging Ability: The antioxidant capabilities of two oligopeptides from sea cucumber intestines, Val-Gly-Thr-Val-Glu-Met and Val-Thr-Pro-Tyr, were determined using ESR spectroscopy to assess their ability to combat hydroxyl radicals, superoxide radicals, and DPPH radicals. The study also investigated their impact on H2O2-induced oxidative damage in Jurkat cells. The results showed that both oligopeptides exhibited concentration-dependent free radical scavenging abilities, with Val-Gly-Thr-Val-Glu-Met showing significantly higher efficacy than Val-Thr-Pro-Tyr. However, at a 5 mM concentration, these oligopeptides were unable to protect Jurkat cell DNA from H2O2-induced oxidative damage, and at a 20 mM concentration, they led to cell death. These findings suggest that the oligopeptides from sea cucumber intestines have antioxidant potential, warranting further exploration for their application value.
Antihypoxic Effects: A series of experiments, including normobaric and hypobaric experiments, examined the effects of sea cucumber oligopeptides, soybean glycopeptides, and their mixtures on mice under hypoxic conditions. The results indicated that these substances significantly extended the survival time of mice under hypoxia, improved certain blood parameters, and reduced oxidative stress in brain tissue. Overall, sea cucumber oligopeptides, soybean glycopeptides, and their combinations all significantly enhanced the tolerance of mice to hypoxia.
Antioxidant Oligopeptides for Functional Foods: Oligopeptides were extracted from sea cucumber intestines using a self-dissolution method, and the optimal extraction conditions, including temperature and pH, were determined using response surface methodology. Under these optimized conditions, four main oligopeptide fractions were isolated, with fraction IV exhibiting potent antioxidant and DNA-protective properties. Mass spectrometry analysis identified specific oligopeptides responsible for these protective effects, including two tetrapeptides and one hexapeptide. These results suggest that oligopeptides extracted from sea cucumber intestines have potential applications in the preparation of functional foods.
Pharmaceutical Industry Applications
Promotion of Wound Healing in Diabetic Mice: The effect of small-molecule oligopeptides extracted from sea cucumber on wound healing in diabetic mice was investigated. Different doses of SCCOPs were administered to 90 db/db mice, with whey protein used as a control, and a normal control group was also included. Wound healing, inflammation, angiogenesis, collagen deposition, oxidative stress, and nutritional status were assessed at days 4, 7, and 14 after creating wounds on the mice's backs. The results showed that mice treated with small-molecule oligopeptides exhibited increased vascularization, collagen deposition, and epithelialization, as well as reduced levels of inflammatory markers and oxidative stress. These findings suggest that the use of small-molecule oligopeptides from sea cucumber can significantly promote wound healing in diabetic mice.
Blood Sugar Reduction and Inflammation Suppression: Sea cucumber peptides were studied for their hypoglycemic and anti-inflammatory effects using a db/db mouse model. Over 45 days, different doses of sea cucumber peptides were orally administered, and the mice's physiological parameters, including water intake, urine volume, blood glucose levels, and oral glucose tolerance, were observed. After the experiments, blood biochemical markers were measured to assess the effects of sea cucumber peptides. The results indicated that medium and high doses of sea cucumber peptides significantly improved the mice's symptoms, reduced the severity of the "three highs" symptoms, and enhanced their quality of life. The sea cucumber peptide intervention group significantly lowered fasting blood sugar levels, improved oral glucose tolerance, and reduced the levels of inflammatory markers while increasing the expression of anti-inflammatory factors. These findings suggest that sea cucumber peptides not only improve blood sugar control in diabetic mice but also possess anti-inflammatory effects, providing a new theoretical basis for their application in diabetes treatment and inflammation.
Promotion of Postoperative Wound Healing: The potential of sea cucumber collagen oligopeptides to promote postoperative wound healing was investigated. Mice were divided into five groups, including a model control group, a whey protein group, and three different doses of sea cucumber collagen peptide groups. After undergoing back incision surgery, wound healing at different time points, serum biochemical indicators, wound tensile strength, and skin tissue HE staining were evaluated. The results showed that compared to the model control group, mice in the sea cucumber collagen oligopeptide dose group exhibited lower serum IL-8 levels, higher IL-10 levels, increased NO levels, improved wound tensile strength, and better wound healing outcomes. This suggests that sea cucumber collagen oligopeptides can improve the nutritional status of diabetic mice postoperatively and promote wound healing.
Improvement of Liver Damage: The protective effects of sea cucumber collagen oligopeptides on liver damage induced by antituberculosis drugs (isoniazid and rifampicin) were studied in rats. In the experiment, 72 male Wistar rats were divided into six groups, including a normal control group, a model group, a positive control group, and three different doses of sea cucumber collagen oligopeptide groups. Liver tissue, biochemical indicators, and oxidative stress markers in the liver were observed after administration. The results showed that the model group rats exhibited damage in liver tissue, such as swelling and degeneration, as well as inflammatory cell infiltration. Treatment with silymarin and different doses of sea cucumber collagen oligopeptides significantly improved these liver injuries. Compared to the normal control group, the model group showed elevated serum ALT and ALP levels, which were significantly reduced after treatment with silymarin and sea cucumber collagen oligopeptides. Sea cucumber collagen oligopeptides could significantly improve liver damage induced by antituberculosis drugs in rats.
Immunology Industry Applications
Immunomodulation: A series of experiments involving 250 SPF-grade female BALB/c mice were conducted to assess the immunomodulatory effects of sea cucumber oligopeptides. These experiments included measurements of lymphocyte transformation, hypersensitivity reactions, antibody-secreting cells, hemolysin levels, carbon clearance, macrophage phagocytosis, NK cell activity, and flow cytometry analysis of splenic T lymphocyte subpopulations. The results showed that sea cucumber oligopeptides significantly enhanced the cellular and humoral immune functions, macrophage phagocytic activity, and NK cell activity in mice, surpassing the effects of whey protein. T lymphocyte subpopulation analysis revealed a significant increase in the CD3+ and CD4+ cell proportions in the spleen with sea cucumber oligopeptide treatment. This suggests that sea cucumber oligopeptides may enhance immune function by increasing the number of T lymphocytes and the proportion of Th cells, thereby improving cellular and humoral immunity, macrophage phagocytic capacity, and NK cell activity.
Cell-Mediated and Humoral Immunity: Experiments were conducted to evaluate the regulatory effects of sea cucumber oligopeptides on the mouse immune system. These experiments covered splenic lymphocyte proliferation, delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions, IgM antibody responses, hemolysin levels, carbon clearance, macrophage phagocytosis, and NK cell activity. Sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were also used to assess the effects of sea cucumber oligopeptides on splenic T lymphocyte subpopulations, serum cytokine levels, and immunoglobulin levels. Additionally, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were used to investigate the mechanism of action of sea cucumber oligopeptides on intestinal secretory immunoglobulins. The research results indicated that sea cucumber oligopeptides could enhance mouse immune function, possibly by stimulating Th cells, promoting cytokine secretion, and antibody production, thus achieving immunomodulatory effects.
Stimulation of Macrophages: Small-molecule oligopeptides (SCOP) extracted from sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) were characterized. SCOP enhanced the immune activity of RAW264.7 macrophages by releasing NO, TNF-α, and IL-6. SCOP stimulated macrophages by upregulating the NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways.
Specialized Field Applications
Uric Acid Reduction
Regulation of Uric Acid Biosynthesis: The effects of oligopeptides from two sea cucumber species, Apostichopus japonicus and Acaudina leucoprocta, on hyperuricemia and kidney inflammation were studied. Through structural and oligopeptide content analysis, it was found that both hydrolysates could reduce uric acid production, promote uric acid excretion, and alleviate hyperuricemia. Additionally, they also reduced inflammation and alleviated kidney inflammation by inhibiting the activation of specific signaling pathways. The study suggested that Apostichopus japonicus had a more significant effect, possibly due to its positive impact on the gut microbiota. This research provides valuable information for further development of sea cucumber applications.
Induction of Apoptosis in Cancer Cells (MCF-7): The potential biological and pharmacological characteristics of small-molecule oligopeptides (SCIP) extracted from sea cucumber intestines were explored, particularly their anti-cancer properties. SCIP contained abundant hydrophilic amino acids and branched-chain amino acids and showed the ability to promote apoptosis in zebrafish and human breast cancer cells (MCF-7). Mechanistic studies revealed that SCIP promoted apoptosis in breast cancer cells (MCF-7) by inhibiting the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway, demonstrating its anti-cancer potential. This finding is significant for a deeper understanding of the pharmacological characteristics and potential biological effects of SCIP.
Alzheimer's Disease Mitigation
Reduction of Amyloid-β Protein Aggregation in Alzheimer's Disease: Simulated digestion improved the bioactivity of sea cucumber hydrolysates. Nine new oligopeptides were identified from the simulated digestion of sea cucumber. IGFH, LGFH, DWF, and FQF were found to inhibit intracellular Aβ aggregation. IGFH, LGFH, DWF, and FQF may be used in functional foods to combat Aβ aggregation.
[1].Jie Zheng et al. Identification of antioxidative oligopeptides derived from autolysis hydrolysates of sea cucumber (Stichopus japonicus) guts. 10.1007/s00217-012-1708-9
[2].Di Li et al. Effect of Low Molecular Weight Oligopeptides Isolated from Sea Cucumber on Diabetic Wound Healing in db/db Mice. 10.3390/md16010016
[3].Duan Xiu-hon et al. Analysis of Antioxidant Activities of Oligopeptides from Sea Cucumber Guts Based on ESR and Cell Culture System. Modern Food Science and Technology
[4] Tian-xing WANG et al. Effects of Sea Cucumber Peptides on Blood Sugar Reduction and Inflammatory Response Level in Mice. Food and Nutrition in China (2018).
[5] Lin LI et al. Promoting Effects of Sea Cucumber Collagen Oligopeptides on Postoperative Wound Healing in Diabetic Mice. Food and Nutrition in China (2017).
[6] Ya CHEN et al. Improvement in Hepatic Damage Induced by Antituberculosis Drugs with Sea Cucumber Collagen Oligopeptides. Food and Nutrition in China (2018).
[7] Haitao Wan et al. Comparisons of Protective Effects Between Two Sea Cucumber Hydrolysates Against Diet-Induced Hyperuricemia and Renal Inflammation in Mice. Published in a journal with DOI: 10.1039/c9fo02425e.
[8] QIhen Chen et al. Sea Cucumber Oligopeptides: Immunomodulatory Effects and Mechanism Study. Science & Technology Review (2016).
[9].Li-Xia He et al. Sea cucumber (Codonopsis pilosula) oligopeptides: immunomodulatory effects based on stimulating Th cells, cytokine secretion and antibody production.. 10.1039/c5fo01480h
[10].Nan Cai et al. Activation of murine RAW264.7 macrophages by oligopeptides from sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) and its molecular mechanisms. 10.1016/j.jff.2020.104229
[11].Wei Wei et al. Sea Cucumber Intestinal Peptide Induces the Apoptosis of MCF-7 Cells by Inhibiting PI3K/AKT Pathway. 10.3389/fnut.2021.763692
[12].Xiaoling Lin et al. Identification of novel oligopeptides from the simulated digestion of sea cucumber (Stichopus japonicus) to alleviate Aβ aggregation progression. 10.1016/J.JFF.2019.06.014